The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti (1855–1926). Italy acquired full control of the northeastern, central and southern parts of the area after successfully waging the so-called Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo.
Somalia, Somaliland, and Puntland The Republic of Somalia experienced fragmentation in the 1990s: the self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland asserted its independence from Somalia in 1991, and the Puntland State of Somalia declared itself an autonomous region of Somalia in 1998. Neither is internationally recognized.
Somalia's government lacks the ability to collect domestic revenue and external debt – mostly in arrears – was estimated at about 77% of GDP in 2017. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings.
Somalia's Membership in International Organizations Bilateral Representation On December 2, 2018, for the first time since the closure of the U.S. Embassy in Mogadishu on January 5, 1991, the United States reestablished a permanent diplomatic presence in Somalia.
The Somalia campaign is a blueprint for warfare that President Obama has embraced and will pass along to his successor. It is a model the United States now employs across the Middle East and North ...
News about Somalia, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.